Ambient carbon monoxide and daily mortality in three Chinese cities: The China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES)
|Title||Ambient carbon monoxide and daily mortality in three Chinese cities: The China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES)|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2011|
|Authors||Chen, R, Pan, G, Zhang, Y, Xu, Q, Zeng, G, Xu, X, Chen, B, Kan, H|
|Journal||Science of the Total Environment|
|Keywords||Air pollutants, CAPES, Cardiovascular mortality, Chinese cities, Combined analysis, Covariates, Developed countries, Health effects, Model specifications, Mortality, Moving averages, Natural splines, Poisson regression models, Seasonal trends, Smoothing function, Time varying, Traffic-related|
Ambient carbon monoxide (CO) is an air pollutant primarily generated by traffic. CO has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity in developed countries, but few studies have been conducted in Asian developing countries. In the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES), the short-term associations between ambient CO and daily mortality were examined in three Chinese cities: Shanghai, Anshan and Taiyuan. Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing functions were used to adjust for long-term and seasonal trend of mortality, as well as other time-varying covariates. Effect estimates were obtained for each city and then for the cities combined. In both individual-city and combined analysis, significant associations of CO with both total non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality were observed. In the combined analysis, a 1mg/m3 increase of 2-day moving average concentrations of CO corresponded to 2.89% (95%CI: 1.68, 4.11) and 4.17% (95%CI: 2.66, 5.68) increase of total and cardiovascular mortality, respectively. CO was not significantly associated with respiratory mortality. Sensitivity analyses showed that our findings were generally insensitive to alternative model specifications. In conclusion, ambient CO was associated with increased risk of daily mortality in these three cities. Our findings suggest that the role of exposure to CO and other traffic-related air pollutants should be further investigated in China. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.